• Carlsson, Carl Henrik

    Naturalization and discrimination. Eastern Jews and other immigrants in Sweden, 1860 to 1923

    Part of Citizenship under pressure. An institutional narrative about naturalizationin changing boundaries (1880-1923)., 2021.

  • Szymańska-Smolkin, Sylwia

    The Glorification of Memory: Jan Tomasz Gross and ‘History Policy’ in Contemporary Poland

    Part of Memories in Conflict, 2021.

  • Hennessey, John

    Fashioning a Scientific Persona in a Colonial Borderland: The Many Identities of William Smith Clark in 1870s Colonial Hokkaido

    Part of Gender, Embodiment, and the History of the Scholarly Persona, p. 55-81, 2021.

    Abstract

    In the 1870s, William Smith Clark was a successful botanist and president of Massachusetts Agricultural College. Nevertheless, frustrated by university politics, financial difficulties, and perhaps a midlife crisis, Clark was recruited by the Japanese government to establish an agricultural college on the northeast Asian island of Hokkaido, where Japan had recently begun an ambitious settler colonial project. In this mutable context, Clark skilfully combined numerous masculine identities, including scientist, missionary, teacher, and explorer, to craft a flamboyant persona that won him lasting respect in Japan. Less suited to Massachusetts, Clark’s inflated persona destroyed his academic and scientific career after his return, however. This chapter explores the construction of personae in “home” and “abroad” contexts and the tensions and opportunities that emerge from travel between them.

  • Dulić, Tomislav

    Memories in Conflict: Historical Trauma, Collective Memory and Justice Since 1989

    2021.

    Abstract

    This volume explores the relationship between political change and collective memory about traumatic historical events since 1989. Departing from an interdisciplinary theoretical perspective that bridges the divide between the humanities and social sciences, four empirical chapters provide in-depth analyses of the profound effect the changes that began with the fall of the socialist system in Eastern Europe have had on the way in which traumatic memories of the past have been dealt with during the last three decades.

    By exploring case studies from Poland, Croatia, the United Kingdom and Chile, the contributions show how traumatic collective mem-ories have been used in state-sponsored memory production, for the purpose of national mobilisation and as a means by which to mobilise social movements. While focusing on different perspec-tives across time and space, the case studies thus highlight the con-nection between collective memory, identity and calls for justice on both societal and group levels. 

  • Dulić, Tomislav; Miljan, Goran

    The Ustašas and Fascism: “Abolitionism,” Revolution, and Ideology (1929–42)

    p. 281-309 2020.

    Abstract

    The analysis departs from a discussion about whether one should consider the Croatian Ustašas as fascist, or whether they in fact are best described as radical nationalist group, as was recently argued by Oleksandr Zaitsev in a comparison with the OUN. By combining Mathiesen’s theory of “the unfinished” with the key elements of “generic fascism”, the authors present a new model for the holistic analysis of fascist ideology over time. Following the in-depth theoretical discussion of the phenomenon of fascistisation, they use the Ustašas as an empirical case to elucidate how “abolitionist” movements and organisations keep part of their ideology “unfinished” in public until the acquisition of state power. During an initial “abolitionist” phase, fascists will focus their communication on those ideological elements of importance for the “dogmatic negation” of “the old system”. The ideological elements relevant for the “positive construction” will instead be merely “suggested” until the assumption of power.  We can find the reason behind such strategies in the statist and monistic tenets of fascist ideology, which views the acquisition of political power as an essential prerequisite for the achievement of profound political and societal change. By connecting the process of fascsistisation to the role of agency and state power, the new model also provides a basis for a more refined analysis of the emergence and development of fascist entities.

  • Gordon, Michelle

    Extreme Violence and the 'British Way': Colonial Warfare in Perak, Sierra Leone and Sudan

    Bloomsbury Academic, 2020.

    Abstract

    This study examines the utilisation of extreme violence throughout the British Empire. The role of this violence in the colonisation process is considered in relation to the following three cases: the Perak War (1875–76); the ‘Hut Tax’ Revolt in Sierra Leone (1898–99) and the Anglo-Egyptian War of Reconquest in the Sudan (1896–99). Methods that were used include: looting; the use of collective reprisals on civilians and scorched earth policies; starvation tactics on the enemy as well as the wider population. The decision-making processes that led to atrocities being committed are explored, as well as the significance of individual colonial administrators in outbreaks of violence. The ways in which racial prejudices, the advocacy of a British ‘civilising mission’ and British racial ‘superiority’ informed colonial administrators’ decisions on the ground are considered.

    This violence needs to be written back into British history. Moreover, this study argues that such brutalities are relevant within a wider context of European warfare and the genocidal violence of the first half of the twentieth century. Instances of British colonial violence are revealing regarding the dynamics of extreme violence. The book is divided into five sections: first it considers the place of colonial violence within the history of the British Empire; the three case studies follow; the final chapter provides an analysis of the cases studies’ findings and discusses its relevance for our understanding of both European and colonial violence, thereby placing British colonial violence within a wider framework of extreme European violence.

  • Miljan, Goran; Mihaljević, Josip

    Was Tito's Yugoslavia not Totalitarian?

    Part of Istorija 20 veka, p. 223-248, 2020.

    Abstract

    This paper is a response to the article “Was Tito’s Yugoslavia totalitarian?” published in the journal Communist and Post-Communist Studies 47 (2014). The two authors indicate the inadequate theoretical framework and untenable interpretations made by Flere and Klanjšek, who provided a distorted picture of former Yugoslav society and the position of an individual in it. Their reduced theory of totalitarianism combined with their simplified interpretations served their aim of proving that the system established by the Yugoslav communists was not totalitarian nor did it strive to become one. Flere and Klanjšek’s main argument for the absence of totalitarianism is that of a federal state concept of Yugoslavia, which is not in correlation with contemporary understanding of totalitarianism. By deconstructing their arguments, this article argues for a more elaborated and up-to-date conceptual understanding of Tito’s Yugoslavia and its relation to the concept of totalitarianism.

    Open access
  • Dulić, Tomislav; Miljan, Goran

    The Ustašas and Fascism : “Abolitionism,” Revolution, and Ideology (1929–42)

    Part of Journal of Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society, p. 281-309, 2020.

    Abstract

    The analysis departs from a discussion about whether one should consider the Croatian Ustašas as fascist, or whether they in fact are best described as radical nationalist group, as was recently argued by Oleksandr Zaitsev in a comparison with the OUN. By combining Mathiesen’s theory of “the unfinished” with the key elements of “generic fascism”, the authors present a new model for the holistic analysis of fascist ideology over time. Following the in-depth theoretical discussion of the phenomenon of fascistisation, they use the Ustašas as an empirical case to elucidate how “abolitionist” movements and organisations keep part of their ideology “unfinished” in public until the acquisition of state power. During an initial “abolitionist” phase, fascists will focus their communication on those ideological elements of importance for the “dogmatic negation” of “the old system”. The ideological elements relevant for the “positive construction” will instead be merely “suggested” until the assumption of power.  We can find the reason behind such strategies in the statist and monistic tenets of fascist ideology, which views the acquisition of political power as an essential prerequisite for the achievement of profound political and societal change. By connecting the process of fascsistisation to the role of agency and state power, the new model also provides a basis for a more refined analysis of the emergence and development of fascist entities.

  • Heuman, Johannes; Rudberg, Pontus

    Holocaust Memory in Sweden: A Re-evaluation

    Part of Early Holocaust Memory in Sweden, 2020.

  • Heuman, Johannes; Rudberg, Pontus

    Holocaust Memory in Sweden: A Re-evaluation

    Part of Early Holocaust Memory in Sweden, 2020.

  • Heuman, Johannes; Rudberg, Pontus

    Early Holocaust Memory in Sweden: Archives, Testimonies and Reflections

    2020.

    Abstract

    This book investigates the memory of the Holocaust in Sweden and concentrates on early initiatives to document and disseminate information about the genocide during the late 1940s until the early 1960s. As the first collection of testimonies and efforts to acknowledge the Holocaust contributed to historical research, judicial processes, public discussion, and commemorations in the universalistic Swedish welfare state, the chapters analyse how and in what ways the memory of the Holocaust began to take shape, showing the challenges and opportunities that were faced in addressing the traumatic experiences of a minority. In Sweden, the Jewish trauma could be linked to positive rescue actions instead of disturbing politics of collaboration, suggesting that the Holocaust memory was less controversial than in several European nations following the war. This book seeks to understand how and in what ways the memory of the Holocaust began to take shape in the developing Swedish welfare state and emphasises the role of transnational Jewish networks for the developing Holocaust memory in Sweden.

  • Gordon, Michelle

    Prospects for a Bewältigung of Extreme Violence in Britain's Imperial Past

    Part of Modern Languages Open, p. 1-17, 2020.

    Abstract

    This article addresses how (‘selective’) British memory has served to emphasize the extreme violence perpetrated by others at the expense of a critical examination of brutalities in ‘British history’. Not least, the genocidal violence perpetrated by (British) settler colonisers, as well as the extreme violence that was inherent throughout the systems of administrative colonialism. The ‘history wars’ in Australia have not penetrated ‘British history’. Assumptions are often based on British ‘exceptionalism’; an approach mirrored by British memorialisation and museum exhibitions, including Britain’s Holocaust Memorial Day and the Imperial War Museum. That the knowledge produced by scholars on the key linkages between Britain and extreme violence is not translating to the wider public, has been demonstrated through Brexit debates. The British Empire has loomed large in these discussions, on all levels of society, and politicians have been particularly willing to use ahistorical narratives to further their causes. The ongoing significance of empire to British national identity has also been demonstrated by recent polls on perceptions of the British Empire. National narratives are currently being confronted across Europe in the face of increased right-wing populism and anti-EU sentiments. In this context, thresholds are continuously being crossed. An example of ahistorical/selective narratives is the British foreign secretary’s comparison between the EU and a Soviet gulag. ‘Balance sheet’ approaches to the Empire in particular have served to continue narratives of British ‘exceptionalism’. This crisis or selectivity of memory has brought us to a crossroads. A responsible and critical assessment of Britain’s relationship with extreme violence is necessary; we must move beyond a patriotic approach (Drayton).

    Open access
  • Dogan, Recep

    Can Honor Killings Be Explained With the Concept of Social Death?: Reinterpreting Social Psychological Evidence

    Part of Homicide Studies, p. 127-150, 2020.

    Abstract

    This article uses the concept of social death to explore the experiences and motivations of perpetrators of honor killings in light of social psychological evidence. This analysis then seeks an explanation for some honor killing cases where ostracism or extreme social exclusion of the perpetrator has preceded the murder. I argue that in some honor killing cases, extreme rejection and exclusion may lead the individual to feel that he or she has no choice but to seek validation or approval through killing to be re-included and recognized by the community and family.

  • Rudberg, Pontus

    Från Malakis rop till Rakels tårar: Stockholms synagoga under de mörka åren 1933–1945

    Part of Jag må bo mitt ibland dem, p. 79-94, 2020.

  • Gröndahl, Satu

    Minority literature as an emancipatory force: The development of Tornedalian and Sweden-Finnish literature

    Part of Ways of being in the world, p. 48-76, 2020.

  • Ackermann-Boström, Constanze

    A multilingual soul

    Part of Multilingual is normal, p. 98-100, 2020.

  • Fur, Gunlög; Hennessey, John

    Svensk kolonialism, Sverige och kolonialism eller svenskar och kolonialism?: Introduktion

    Part of Historisk Tidskrift (S), p. 375-384, 2020.

    Open access
  • Carlsson, Carl Henrik

    Parallella processer - ståtlig synagoga och kamp för rättigheter

    Part of jag må bo mitt ibland dem. Stockholms stora synagoga 150 år, p. 9-21, 2020.

  • Carlsson, Carl Henrik

    Synagogans rabbiner och kantorer

    Part of jag må bo mitt ibland dem. Stockholms stora synagoga 150 år, p. 194-197, 2020.

  • Rudberg, Pontus

    Holocaust Testimonies in Jewish Compensation Claims in the United Restitution Organisation’s Archive in Stockholm

    Part of Early Holocaust Memory in Sweden, p. 93-117, 2020.

    Abstract

    This chapter deals with testimonies derived from legal processes and documents the creation of several bureaus for the provision of legal aid to Jewish refugees and survivors making claims against Germany, Poland and other countries between 1947 and 1950. Yet another bureau, The URO Bureau, was created in 1953 as a national branch of the international United Restitution Organisation to assist individuals who wanted to file claims for restitution in line with the German compensation laws of 1952. The files of these bureaus include both the applicants’ personal testimonies and the final accounts that were part of the applications, drafted in the more objective and detached style that is typical of legal testimonies. The author shows how claims for justice have influenced the narratives in these testimonies.

  • Gordon, Michelle

    Transitions in British Decolonisation: The Case of Horatio Herbert Kitchener

    Part of Memories in Conflict, p. 77-98, 2020.

  • Kostic, Roland; Kostic, Roland

    Collective Memory in Transition: Bridging the Divide Between the Humanities and Social Sciences

    Part of Memories in Conflict, 2020.

  • Dulic, Tomislav

    Introduction

    Part of Memories in Conflict, 2020.

  • Gordon, Michelle

    Selective Histories: Britain, the Empire and the Holocaust

    Part of The Palgrave Handbook of Britain and the Holocaust, 2020.

    Abstract

    The purpose of this chapter is to address the ways in which selective readings of Holocaust history have informed both Holocaust memorialisations in the UK and how the British Empire is represented and remembered. While an awareness of the Holocaust in the UK has been raised,  there is a tendency in the UK to emphasise the perpetration of violence by others while occluding Britain’s historical role in extreme violence. This chapter argues explorations of the Holocaust need to be accompanied—not replaced—by greater examination and self-reflection related to British history and violence. There has long been a prevalent view of the British Empire, which tends to adhere to the longstanding view that the empire was fundamentally benevolent and was beneficial to both the ‘colonisers’ and the ‘colonised’; this approach needs to be challenged and the violent legacies of empire acknowledged.

  • Becker, Lior

    Yizkor Books and Communal Commemoration

    Part of Mishpologen - Medlemsblad för Judiska Släktforskningsföreningen, 2020.

  • Kostić, Roland

    Shifting Identities, Policy Networks, and the Practical and Ethical Challenges of Gaining Access to the Field in Interventions

    Part of Doing Fieldwork in Areas of International Intervention, p. 23-36, 2020.

  • Kostić, Roland; Dulić, Tomislav

    Collective Memory in Transition: Bridging the Divide Between the Humanities and Social Science

    Part of Memories in Conflict, p. 13-34, 2020.

  • Fur, Gunlog; Hennessey, John L.

    Swedish colonialism, Sweden and colonialism or Swedes and colonialism?

    Part of Historisk Tidskrift (S), p. 375-384, 2020.

  • Guthrey, Holly L.

    “Vigilante” Expressions of Social Memory in Chile: Exploring La Comisión Funa as a Response to Justice Deficits

    Part of Memories in Conflict, 2020.

    Open access
  • Gröndahl, Satu

    Hundar som heter Seppo: Några reflektioner kring den litterära flerspråkigheten

    Part of Där Östersjön är Västersjön. Festskrift till Virve och Raimo Raag, p. 25-35, 2020.

    Open access
  • Miljan, Goran

    When the Past Scorns the Present: Memory and Meaning of Bleiburg and Jasenovac in Contemporary Croatia

    Part of Memories in Conflict: Historical Trauma, Collective Memory and Justice Since 1989, p. 57-76, 2020.

    Abstract

    This paper analyzes the situation in post-socialist Croatia in its relation to the collective memory about Jasenovac and Bleiburg, two lieux de mémoire connected to the Second World War history and the fascist Ustaša regime in the wartime Independent State of Croatia. It examines how actors, mostly conservative-leaning academic and popular knowledge-production, tend to portray the national "in-group" as a "victim nation". Due to the problematic relation to the wartime fascist state, some revisionists have sought to "universalize" genocide generally and the Holocaust in particular. By referring to the atrocious behavior of the "Other", political actors and academics have tried to spread the blame evenly among fascists, communists, and nationalists, thus reducing the culpability of the Ustašas for their participation in the Holocaust.

  • Guthrey, Holly L.

    Microlevel Security after Armed Conflict: A New Framework for Analyzing Risks and Benefits of Peacebuilding Processes

    Part of International Studies Review, p. 802-829, 2020.

    Abstract

    The maintenance and/or achievement of security is of paramount importance within settings recovering from armed conflict; however existing studies in the field of peacebuilding do not sufficiently explore how various processes undertaken within peacebuilding programming result in different types of security outcomes at the individual and community level. In this article, I develop a novel conceptual framework for analyzing “micro-level” security risks and benefits of peacebuilding processes, through an adapted version of Johan Galtung’s work on direct and structural violence. For the purposes of this article, the framework is applied in the context of “local” transitional justice (TJ) processes used in the aftermath of armed conflict, for which advocacy and implementation has increased in the recent past. Relying on a social psychological definition of security, I disaggregate components of direct and structural violence and use illustrative examples from existing empirical studies about the effects of local TJ processes in various settings to demonstrate ways in which these types of violence may be perpetuated, or initiated in new forms through these processes, thus posing security risks. The framework is further developed through the elucidation of factors that may help to repair the consequences of direct and structural violence and/or hinder the likelihood of their repetition, thematically conceptualized as physical and psychological welfare and social justice (respective to direct and structural violence) that I suggest link to security benefits. The framework intends to provide new perspectives on understanding how peacebuilding processes may both promote and prevent security from being realized at the local level following armed conflict.

    Open access
  • Hennessey, John L.

    A Colonial Trans-Pacific Partnership: William Smith Clark, David Pearce Penhallow and Japanese Settler Colonialism in Hokkaido

    Part of Settler Colonial Studies, p. 54-73, 2020.

    Abstract

    Immediately following the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the new, Western-oriented Japanese government decided to make the colonization of the adjacent northern island of Hokkaido a showcase of and economic engine for Japanese modernity. In so doing, Japanese leaders consciously modelled Japanese settler colonialism there on American models, particularly in the treatment of the indigenous Ainu. As part of this project, a large number of American advisors were hired, including three American professors from Massachusetts Agricultural College who were to found a similar institution in Sapporo. Although the story of these professors is well-known in Japan, their connections to Japanese settler colonialism have never been properly investigated. I argue that these professors, most importantly William Smith Clark and David Pearce Penhallow, served as important conduits of colonial knowledge, spreading both American technologies of settler colonialism to Japan and a positive image of Japanese imperialism in the United States after their return. Most significantly, they spread new, ‘scientific’ understandings of the Ainu that conformed to classic Western colonial tropes and contributed to their systematic dispossession. In these ways, these American ‘brokers of imperialism’ worked in tandem with their Japanese employers to both physically and discursively reform Hokkaido into an American-style ‘frontier’.

    Open access
  • Dulić, Tomislav; Gröndahl, Satu; Grönstrand, Heidi

    Multiethnica Volume 40: Special issue - Multilingualism

    2020.

    Open access
  • Hennessey, John L.

    Contextualizing Colonial Connections: Reevaluating Takekoshi Yosaburō’s Japanese Rule in Formosa

    Part of Japan Review, p. 141-164, 2020.

    Abstract

    In 1907, Japanese Rule in Formosa was published in London. It was the English translation of Taiwan tōchi shi (1905), a book about Japan’s colonization of Taiwan by Japanese popular historian and liberal politician Takekoshi Yosaburō. Japanese Rule in Formosa proved remarkably influential, both at the time and in postwar historiography. Although isolated quotes from the 1907 work are frequently used by present-day historians, little attention has been granted to the political context in which it was published or the accuracy of the translation. The fact that Takekoshi advocated an unambiguous form of colonial rule in which the Japanese constitution would not apply in Taiwan placed him at odds with other leaders of his liberal Seiyūkai party who wanted Taiwan to be merged into Japan’s administrative and legal structures. Takekoshi’s stance reveals that colonial debates did not always match up with other political or philosophical fault lines. His ideas were, however, consistent and engaged in global, trans-imperial dialogue about assimilation and association in colonial administration. This article will position Takekoshi’s work within the contemporaneous Japanese debate over Taiwan’s legal status and argue that, although the timing of its publication meant that it had little influence in Japan, it had a significant effect on the attitudes of colonialist scholars in Europe and America towards Japanese imperialism.

    Open access
  • Ionescu, Stefan Cristian

    Theorists of Economic Nationalism in 1930s-1940s Romania

    Part of Nationalities Papers, p. 264-279, 2019.

    Abstract

    This article examines the main theorists of economic nationalism (Romanianization) and their ideas promoting protectionism and anti-Semitism in 1930s–1940s Romania. Trying to offer a rational scientific justification for excluding foreigners, especially Jews, and increasing the role of ethnic Romanians in the economy, major scholars of economics offered solutions toward successful Romanianization. Because some of these economists were also influential politicians and public intellectuals, their investigations and blueprints for the project gained wide publicity and provided steps for achieving it rapidly and thoroughly. These economists disseminated their theoretical and empirical constructions of Romanianization in university courses, public lectures, and publications. Some were important scholars; among them, Virgil Madgearu, Mihail Manoilescu, Gheorghe N. Leon, Ion Răducanu, and D. R. Ioaniţescu, They examined Romanianization of the economy from the 1930s to the 1940s and influenced the agenda of local elites and the general public, due to their prestigious positions as politicians, public intellectuals, and professors at local universities.

  • Hennessey, John

    Imperial Ardor or Apathy?: A Comparative International Historiography of Popular Imperialism

    Part of History Compass, 2019.

    Abstract

    Were the ordinary citizens of imperial metropoles during the 19th and 20th centuries arduous supporters or apathetic observers of their country's colonial expansionism,or did their relationship to empire fall somewhere in between? Although this is a central question for understanding the how and why of modern imperialism and evaluating responsibility for colonial wrongs, scholars in the only loosely knit field of popular imperialism have arrived at widely divergent answers. Complementing its companion article, “By Jingo! Methods for Researching Popular Imperialism,” this article will present an overviewof the conclusions of existing studies and present ways that future studies can become more theoretically and methodologically sophisticated through inspiration from comparativeand transnational history, nationalism studies, and genocide studies.

  • Hennessey, John

    By Jingo!: Methods for Researching Popular Imperialism

    Part of History Compass, 2019.

    Abstract

    The study of popular imperialism, or the extent to which the ordinary citizens of an imperial metropole were aware of and supported their country’s imperial expansion, provides a crucial empirical basis for evaluating the causes of and responsibility for colonial aggression. Nevertheless, this topic has received considerably less attention than comparable topics like fascism, genocide or nationalism, and a comparative conversation between scholars of different empires is largely lacking. Together with a companion article, “Imperial Ardor or Apathy? A Comparative International Historiography of Popular Imperialism,” this article will provide inspiration for future studies by summarizing different approaches to and methodological problems involved in the study of popular imperialism, drawing on a wide range of research on several empires.

  • Gordon, Michelle

    Viewing Violence in the British Empire: Images of Atrocity from the Battle of Omdurman, 1898

    Part of Journal of Perpetrator Research, p. 65 65-100 100, 2019.

    Abstract

    This article explores a range of photographs taken in the aftermath of the Battle of Omdurman on 2 September 1898, the final and decisive battle of the Anglo-Egyptian Reconquest of the Sudan (1896–98). This campaign was particularly controversial for the methods that were used against the Mahdia, which included the massacring of the enemy wounded and those trying to surrender. The photographs under examination are relevant to considerations of the ensuing controversies of the campaign in which Kitchener was obliged to write directly to Queen Victoria to explain his actions, notably in relation to the bombing of the Mahdi's tomb and the treatment of his remains. As historians have previously noted, the events in Omdurman constituted a massacre rather than a battle, and areas of dispute include whether Emirs were specifically targeted for destruction in the campaign. The photographs in question contribute to this debate. This article addresses the photographs in the wider context of violence throughout the British Empire and in the context of other images of British violence. That such photographs are not commonly viewed and discussed speaks to wider issues regarding popular perceptions of the 'benevolent' British Empire, particularly in comparison to its European counterparts.

    Open access
  • Dulić, Tomislav

    Among the Hyperboreans: Yugoslav prisoners in Norway 1942-1945

    Part of Forced Labour in Serbia, p. 118-139, 2019.

    Abstract

    This article provides new insights into the violence suffered by more than four thousand Yugoslavs who were deported to Norway by Nazi Germany during the Second World War. Placed in labour camps throughout the country, they were made to work under extremely harsh conditions on projects such as road construction and military installations. Particular attention is paid to their interaction with prison guards and to the political conflicts that emerged within the prisoner group. The findings of sociologist Nils Christie on the camp guards are juxtaposed against new sources from Belgrade, which became fully available to scholars in the early 2000s. These new sources show how the camp administrations exploited the terrible hygienic conditions, malnutrition and negative stereotypes about a violence-prone “Balkan culture” to create emotional distance between prisoners and guards. The prisoners complained that they were not given enough food or sufficient opportunity to maintain their hygiene, which they attributed to a conscious policy on the part of the camp administration. Lice infestations, outbreaks of typhus and malaria, combined with extrajudicial executions, not least of prisoners who fell ill, resulted in a death toll of over sixty percent for the Yugoslavs. The Yugoslavs thus suffered among the highest death tolls of any national or ethnic community relocated to Scandinavia during the war. The analysis further deals with prisoner escapes to Sweden, which were often made possible by help from Norwegian civilians. Such experiences contributed to the very positive image of Norway and Norwegians in the witness statements taken by the Yugoslav embassy in Stockholm. These statements also show that the prisoners had a very positive view of how they were treated by the authorities upon arrival in Sweden.

    Open access
  • Rudberg, Pontus

    The Swedish Jews and the Holocaust

    Routledge, 2019.

  • Miljan, Goran

    The Ustasha Youth and the Aryanization of Jewish Property in the Independent State of Croatia, 1941-1945

    Part of European Holocaust Studies, p. 113-132, 2019.

  • Porter, Jim Wynter

    Guidance counseling in the mid-twentieth century United States:: Measurement, grouping, and the making of the intelligent self

    Part of History of Science, 2019.

    Abstract

    This article investigates National Defense Education Act and National Defense Education Act-related calls in the late 1950s for the training of guidance counselors, an emergent profession that was to play an instrumental role in both the measuring and placement of students in schools by “intelligence” or academic “ability”. In analyzing this mid-century push for more guidance counseling in schools, this article will first explore a foundational argument for the fairness of intelligence testing made by Educational Testing Service psychometrician William Turnbull in 1951, and then later taken up and employed by other National Defense Education Act-era advocates of testing and grouping. Secondly, this analysis will proceed to National Defense Education Act expert testimony, examining here assertions of the necessity of guidance counseling in schools, and an emergent and shared vision articulating the role guidance counseling was supposed to play in school life. A pattern or structure to this vision emerges here. According to its advocates, guidance counseling would not only inform the self-understanding of the measured individual, but it would also work to condition the ideology of individual intelligence across numerous layers of social life around the student: through peer group, through teachers and school administrators, and finally through home, family, and the wider community.

    Open access
  • Gröndahl, Satu

    Fjäll i förvandling: Sydsamiska röster under hundra år

    Part of Acta Academiae Regiae Scientiarum Upsaliensis Kungl. Vetenskapssamhällets i Uppsala Handlingar, p. 47-63, 2019.

  • Hennessey, John L.

    Assimilation, Association and French Advice to Japan on how to Rule Taiwan

    Part of French Colonial History, p. 101-127, 2019.

    Abstract

    What trans-imperial connections existed between the French and Japanese Empires? One example that is frequently recounted in Japanese colonial historiography involves the 1895 advice of French legal expert Michel Revon over what administrative system Japan should adopt in Taiwan. According to these accounts, Revon advocated a French assimilationist system for the island in a policy brief that would strongly influence future Japanese Prime Minister Hara Takashi. This article demonstrates that this account is not entirely accurate, offering a new analysis of the primary source material in the context of the prevailing French colonial theories of the 1890s. It argues that Revon was in fact an advocate of association and that Hara Takashi’s program of colonial assimilation was only superficially influenced by French models.

  • Gröndahl, Satu

    Minoritetslitteraturers utveckling -: från marginalisering till egenmakt?

    Part of Svensklärarföreningens årsskrift, p. 95-112, 2019.

  • Kostić, Roland; Bliesemman de Guevara, Berit

    Knowledge, expertise and the politics of intervention and statebuilding

    Part of Handbook on Intervention and Statebuilding, p. 19-29, 2019.

  • Borges, Robert; Król, Tymoteusz

    The Relationship Between Literature and Language Revitalization: “RewiTEATRalizacja”in Wilamowice

    Part of Multiethnica, p. 25-38, 2019.

    Abstract

    This article discusses the case of revitalization of the Wymysorys language, spoken in Wilamowice, Poland, where literacy not only plays a role in education-oriented proficiency development, but also where literature is utilized in the learning process and adapted for the purpose of theatrical performances. The authors argue that engagement in these literature-based theatrical activities promotes and expedites language entrenchment that usually develops gradually in ‘normal’ conversational contexts, which are usually lacking in cases of severe language endangerment. The paper addresses the theoretical and practical disparity regarding the role of literature in RLS activities (Fishman 1991), which emphasizes spoken language and ‘natural’ intergenerational language transmission.

    Open access
  • Gröndahl, Satu; Grönstrand, Heidi

    Editors' Note

    Part of Multiethnica, p. 7-11, 2019.

    Open access
  • Dulić, Tomislav; Gröndahl, Satu

    Multiethnica Volume 39

    2019.

    Open access